PERSPECTIVES AND METHODS OF URBAN ETHNOMUSICOLOGY (Seminar)

nb: to be expanded and adapted to suit Semester sytsem

COURSE OBJECTIVE

Music, as res facta (and as part of expressive culture and folklore) bears the marks, laurels, and bruises of its time,
place, peoples, and cultures. Early and contemporary cities and large towns serve not only as factories for recycling
existing musical ideas, but they are also fertile environments for producing new thought and behavioral patterns that
bear great consequences for their sonic environments. Our contemporay urban centers are even more sophisticated
along the intensity and interplay of regional demographic, socioeconomic, temporal and spatial variables, ultimately
challenging our knowledge about tradition and innovation in music. The particular epistemologies and research procedures
we privilege are also constantly being refined in the face of new musical evidence emanating from the urban nuclei of
industrialized and developing worlds.

This seminar will examine the province of urban ethnomusicology and as it relates to the disciplines of anthropology, sociology,
and folklore, with focus on current models, methods and techniques for investigating musical processes in urban areas.
Research ideas such as "subway art," "relative autonomy," "flux," "situational identity," "rural-urban links," "symbiosis of urban
voluntary associations and the institutionalization of performance in urban spaces," and "adaptation/accommodation" will be studied,
with emphasis on their implications for musical performance and organization. Musical examples will be drawn from Latin America
(Lima, Mexico), Africa (Accra, Lagos, Johannesburg, the U.S (Columbus, OH; New York City, San Francisco), Europe (London),
Asia (India, Calcutta & Madras; Heirat, Afghanistan; Iran, etc.). The musical examples will include specific genres, forms and modes
of their transmission, levels of professionalization, and comparative studies of rural and urban cognitive models by which meaning is
assigned differently by various musicians to the genres. Graduate students in music, anthropology, sociology, and folklore who wish to
broaden/develop theoretical background and research skills are particularly welcome in the seminar.

 


TIME TABLE

WEEK 1

prelude to urban ethnomusicology--misconceptions about the rural and the urban

Readings:

Redfield, Cultural Role of Cities

Redfield, Folk Society

Nettl, Eight Urban Cultures, Introduction

Southall, Rural-Urban Dichotomies

McLeod, Folk vs. Urban Ideology

WEEK 2

early studies in urban ethomusicology and urban foklore

Readings:

Nettl, Eight Urban Cultures, Introduction

Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, Urban Frontier

Newman, Country Musicians and their City Cousins

Paredes, Americo, et al. The Urban Experience and Folk Tradition

Blum, Rural and Urban Interchange in the Music of Northeastern Iran

WEEK 3

music at the crossroads: the necessity of interdisciplinary perspectives

models and approaches in urban anthropology

Readings:

Nettl, Eight Urban Cultures, Introduction

Reyes-Schramm, Adelaida. "Explorations in Urban Ethnomusicology

Cohen, Exploration in the Structure of Urban Cultural Movements

Greg & Southall, eds., Urban Anthropology in China

Gmelch & Zenner, eds., Social Anthropology: Readings in Urban Anthropology

WEEK 4

music at the crossroads: the necessity of interdisciplinary perspectives

models and approaches in urban sociology

Readings

Abu-Lughod, Janet L. Changing Cities

Cohen & Fukui, eds. Humanising the City

McLeod, City and Society

Hatt & Reiss, eds., Reader in Urban Sociology

WEEK 5

Urbanization in the industrialized world: Overview of patterns and processes and their musical ramifications

Readings:

Chambers, Popular Culture: The Metropolitan Experience

Reyes-Schramm, Ethnic Music, the Urban Area, and Ethnomusicology

Tova & Sharvit, Towards a Study of Israel Urban Musical Culture

Rogers & Vertovec, eds. The Urban Context: Ethnicity, Social Networks... Mahling, Music and Places for the Performance

WEEK 6

Urbanization in the Developing World: Social Alignment as Musical Oppportunity

The Importance of Rural-Urban Links

Readings:

Abu-Lughod &Hay, eds. Third World Urbanization

Avorgbedor, Rural-Urban Interchange: Anlo-Ewe Music

Baily, Professional Musicians in the City of Herat

William, The Urbanization of Tembang Sunda

Turino, Music of the Peruvian Altiplano and the Experience of Urban Migration.

Carvalho, Musical Style, Migration, and Urbanization

Hampton, Revised Analytical Approach to Musical Processes in Urban Africa.

Pacheco, History, Identity, and the New Song Movement in Mexico City

WEEK 7

Musical Ethnography of Music in Large Cities: Strategies--New York City,

Washington D.C., London

Readings:

Arceneaux, The Urban Contemporary Music Video

Chambers, The Metropolitan Experience

Ortiz, Urban Streetlore: A Socio-Musical Manifestation in Art Music

Rogers, Public Music Performers in New York City from 1800-1850

Tanenbaum, Underground Harmonies

Finnegan, The Hidden Musicians: Music-Making in an English Town

Preston, Professional Musicians in Washington, 1877-1900

WEEK 8

Musical ethnography of small cities: Strategies--Columbus, OH

WEEK 9

Cognitive Maps of Music: Rural and Urban Examples Compared

Readings:

Baily, Music of Afghanistan: Professional Musicians in the City of Herat

Sakata, Music in the Mind

Blum, Rural and Urban Interchange in the Music of Northeastern Iran

WEEK 10

Current theories and practices in urban ethnography

Readings:

Prus, Representation in Ethnography

Kemper, Urban Anthropology in the 1990s

Hertz, Fieldwork in Elite Settings


READING LIST

Abu-Lughod, Janet L. Changing Cities: Urban Sociology. New York: Harper collins, 1991.

Abu-Lughod, Janet; Richard Hay, eds. Third World Urbanization . Chicago: Maaroufa Press; New York: Methuen, 1977.

Arceneaux, K.C. "The Remix as Cultural Critique: The Urban Contemporary Music Video." Popular Music and Society16/3(1992):109-124.

Avorgbedor, Daniel. "Rural-Urban Interchange: Anlo-Ewe Music." In Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, vol. 1 (New York: Garland Publishing, 1996)

Baily, John. Music of Afghanistan: Professional Musicians in the City of Herat. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Barnett, H.G. Innovation: The Basis of Cultural Change. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1953.

Becker, Howard S. Art Worlds. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.

Blacking, John. "Some Problems of Theory and Method in the Study of Musical Change." Yearbook of the Internatinal Folk Music Council 9(1978):1-26.

Blacking, John. "Identifying Proccesses of Musical change." World of Music 28/1(1986):3-25.

Blum, Stephen. "Rural and Urban Interchange in the Music of Northeastern Iran." Congress Reports, IMS (1981 [Berkeley, 1977]):608-611.

Carvalho, Marthat de Ulhoa. "Musical Style, Migration, and Urbanization: Some Considerations for Brazilian Musica Sertaneja." Studies in Latin American Popular Cultures 12(1993):75-94.

Chambers, Iain. Popular Culture: The Metropolitan Experience . New York: Methuen, 1986.

Cushman, Thomas. "Notes from the Underground: Rock Music Counterculture in Russia." Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 25/3(1996)

Cohen, Abner. Masquerade Politics: Exploration in the Structure of Urban Cultural Movements.

Cohen, Anthony P.; Katsuyoshi Fukui, eds. Humanising the City: Social Contexts of Urban Life at the Turn of the Millennium.

Erlmann, Veit. "Migration and Performance: Zulu Migrant Workers' Isicathamiya Performance in South Africa, 1890-1950."Ethnomusicology 34/2(1990):199-220.

Finnegan, Ruth. The Hidden Musicians: Music-Making in an English Town. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Garfias, robert. "The Changing Nature of Musical Change." College Music Symposium 14(1984):1-10.

Gmelch, George; Walter P. Zenner, eds., Social Anthropology: Readings in Urban Anthropology, 2nd ed.

Gottschalk, Simon. "Ethnographic Fragments in Postmodern Spaces." Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 24/2(1995)

Grinier, Line. "The Construction of Music as a Social Phenomenon: Implications for Deconstruction." Canadian University Music Review 10/2(1990):27-47.

Gugler, Josef; William Flanagan. Urbanization and Social Change in West Africa. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 1978.

Gutkind, F.C.W. "Orientations and Research Methods in African Urban Studies." In Anthropologists in the Field, ed. D. G. Jongman and F.C.W. Gutkind. Assen, The Netherlands: Van Gorcum, 1967. Pp.133-169.

Hampton, Barbara. "A Revised Analytical Approach to Musical Processes in Urban Africa." African Urban Studies6(1979/80):1-16.

Harrison-Pepper, Sally. "Folk Heroes of the Urban environment: Street Performers in the Americcan City." Urban Resources 4/3(19187):7-12.

Hertz, Rosanna. "Fieldwork in Elite Settings: Introduction." Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 22 (1993)

Mahling, Christoph-Hellmut. "Music and Places for the Performance of Music as a Reflection of Urban Social Stratification in the 19th and Early 2oth Centuries." IMS Report, Berkeley 1977 (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1981):307-311.

Kartomi, Margaret. "The Processes and Results of Musical Contact." Ethnomusicology 25(1981):227-249.

Kemper, Robert V. "Urban Anthropology in the 1990s: The State of its Practice." Urban Anthropology & Studies of Ccultural Systems & World Economic Development 2/3(1991):211-223.

Koetting, James. "Effects of Urbanization: the Music of the Kassena People of Ghana." World of Music 17/4(1985):23-31.

Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, Barbara. City Play. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1990.

Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, Barbara. "The Arts, Artifacts, and Artifices of Identity." Journal of American Folklore 107(1994):211-247.

Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, Barbara. "The Future of Folklore Studies in America: The Urban Frontier." Folklore Forum 16/2(1983):175-234.

Lawson, Mary Elizabeth. "Musical Variety in Urban Kiribati." Bikmaus 4/1(1983):145-152.

L'Armand, Kathleen; Adrian L'Armand. "Music in Madras: The Urbanization of a Cultural Tradition." In Bruno Nettl, ed., Eight Urban Cultures, Pp.115-145.

Lofland, John. "Analyzing Social Settings: A Guide to Qualitative Observation and Analysis." Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 25/3(1996).

Low, Setha M. "The Anthropology of Cities: Imaagining and Theorizing the City." American Review of Anthropology 25(1996):383-409.

Mahling, Christoph-Hellmut. "Music and Places for the Performance of Music as a Reflection of Urban Social Stratification in the 19th and Early 2oth Centuries." IMS Report, Berkeley 1977 (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1981):307-311.

Mas, Peter J.M., ed. Urban Symbolism. Leiden/New York: E.J. Brill, 1993.

McDonogh, Gary; Robert Rotenberg, eds. The Cultural Meaning of Urban Space. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 1993

McLeod, James R. "Folk vs. Urban Ideology: Political Culture and Change in an Inner London Borough." In City and Society (Washington, D.C., 1994), pp.67-92.

Momos, dimitri. "Rebetico: the Music of the Greek Working Class." International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society 1/2(1987)111-119.

Nettl, Bruno. The Study of Ethnomusicology: Twenty-Nine Issues and Concepts. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983.

Nettl, Bruno. "Paradigms in the History of Ethnomusicology." College Music Symposium 17(1977) 171-182.

Newman, Daniel M. "Country Musicians and their City Cousins: The Social Organizations of Music Transmissions in India." IMS Report, 1977 (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1981), pp.603-608.

Ortiz, William. "Urban Streetlore: A Socio-Musical Manifestation in Art Music." Living Music 4/4(1987):1-3.

Pacheco, Javier Barrales. History, Identity, and the New Song Movement in Mexico City: A Study in Urban Ethnomusicology. Doctoral dissertation, UCLA, 1994. UMI no. DA9511731

Paredes, Americo, et al. The Urban Experience and Folk Tradition . Austin: University of Texas Press, 1971.

Preston, Katherine K. Music for Hire: A Study of Professional Musicians in Washington, 1877-1900. Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon, 1992.

Prus, Robert. "Representation in Ethnography." Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 25/2(1996)

Redfield, Robert. The Folk Society. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1963 [American Journal of Sociology 52 (1947):294-308.

Redfield, Robert. The Cultural Role of Cities. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1963 [Economic Development and Cultural Change 3/1(1954):53-77.

Reyes-Schramm, Adelaida. "Explorations in Urban Ethnomusicology: Hard Lessons from the Spectacularly Ordinary." Yearbook for Traditional Music 14(1982):1-14.

Reyes-Schramm, Adelaida. "Ethnic Music, the Urban Area, and Ethnomusicology." Sociologus 29(1979):1-21.

Rogers, Alisdair; Steven Vertovec, eds. The Urban Context: Ethnicity, Social Networks and Situational Analysis."

Rogers, Delmer D. "Public Music Performers in New York City from 1800-1850." Anuario Musicale 6(1970):5-50.

Rogers, Everest. Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press, 1962

Sakata, Hiromi Lorraine. Music in the Mind: The Concepts of Music and Musiscian in Afghanistan. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1983.

Southall, Aidan. "Rural-Urban Dichotomies." In Greg Guldin and Aidan Southall, eds., Urban Anthropology in China . Leiden/New York: E.J. Brill, 1993. Pp.1-17.

Stone, Ruth. "Urban Music-Making among the Kpelle of Liberia: Temporal Transformations." Paper presented at SEM meeting

Tanenbaum, Susie J. Underground Harmonies: Music and Politics in the Subways of New York. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995.

Turino, Thomas. "The Music of Andean Migrants in Lima, Peru: Demographics, Social Power, and Style." Latin American Music Review 9/2(1988):127-150.

Turino, Thomas. "Moving Away from Silence: Music of the Peruvian Altiplano and the Experience of Urban Migration." Reviews in Anthropology 25/4(1995)225ff.

William, Sean. The Urbanization of Tembang Sunda, an Aristocratic Musical Genre of West Java, Indonesia. Doctoral dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle, 1990. UMI DA9104312

Wirth, Louis. "Urbanism as a Way of Life." In Paul K. Hatt and Albert Reiss, eds., Reader in Urban Sociology. Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1951, pp.32-49.

Yurchenco, Henrietta. "The Beginning of the Urban Folk-Song Movement in New York: A Memoir." The Sonneck Society for American Music Bulletin 13/2(1987):39-43.

Tova; Jaochim Braun; Uri Sharvit. "Towards a Study of Israel Urban Musical Culture: The Case of Kiryat Ono." Asian Music 17/4(1986):168-209.

TABLE

 


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